Skripochnik E, Loh SA. Fluoroscopy time is not accurate as a surrogate for radiation exposure. Vascular. 2017 Oct;25(5):466-471.

The Food and Drug Administration and the Vascular Quality Initiative still utilize fluoroscopy time as a surrogate marker for procedural radiation exposure. This study demonstrates that fluoroscopy time does not accurately represent radiation exposure and that dose area product and air kerma are more appropriate measures.