Simson N, Stonier T, Suleyman N, et al. Defining a national reference level for intraoperative radiation exposure in urological procedures: FLASH, a retrospective multicentre UK study. BJU Int. 2020;125:292-298.

To define reference levels for intraoperative radiation during stent insertion, ureteroscopy (URS), and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL); to identify variation in radiation exposure between individual hospitals across the UK, between low- and high-volume PCNL centres, and between grade of lead surgeon.

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