Rehani MM, et al. ICRP Publication 117. Radiological Protection In Fluoroscopically Guided Procedures Performed Outside The Imaging Department. Ann ICRP. 2010 Dec;40(6):1-102.

A brief account of the health effects of ionising radiation and protection principles is presented in Section 2. Section 3 deals with general aspects of the protection of workers and patients that are common to all, whereas specific aspects are covered in Section 4 for vascular surgery, urology, orthopaedic surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, gastroenterology and hepatobiliary system, and anaesthetics and pain management.

Rehani MM, et al. ICRP Publication 117. Radiological Protection In Fluoroscopically Guided Procedures Performed Outside The Imaging Department. Ann ICRP. 2010 Dec;40(6):1-102.

A brief account of the health effects of ionising radiation and protection principles is presented in Section 2. Section 3 deals with general aspects of the protection of workers and patients that are common to all, whereas specific aspects are covered in Section 4 for vascular surgery, urology, orthopaedic surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, gastroenterology and hepatobiliary system, and anaesthetics and pain management.

Zagorska A, Romanova K, Hristova-Popova J, et al. Eye lens exposure to medical staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Phys Med. 2015 Nov;31(7):781-4.

The paper presents a study of the radiation doses to eye lens of medical staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures performed in a busy gastroenterology department. For each procedure the dose equivalent to the eye, exposure time, dose rate, Kerma Area Product and fluoroscopy time were recorded. Measurements were performed for a period of two months in four main positions of the operating staff, and then extrapolated to estimate annual doses.

Wunderle KA, Rakowski JT, Dong FF. Approaches To Interventional Fluoroscopic Dose Curves. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2016 Jan 8;17(1):342-352.

This study evaluated and compared approaches to technique factor modulation and air kerma rates in response to simulated patient thickness variations for four state-of-the-art and one previous-generation interventional fluoroscopes. The data obtained indicated vendor- and model-specic variations in the approach to technique factor modulation and reference plane air kerma rates across a range of tissue thicknesses. However, in the imaging protocol evaluated, all of the state-of-the-art systems had relatively low air kerma rates in the fluoroscopic low-dose imaging mode as compared to the previous-generation unit. Some vendors have also enhanced the radiation output capabilities of their fluoroscopes which, under specic conditions, may be beneficial; however, these increased output capabilities also have the potential to lead to unnecessarily high dose rates.

Wambani JS, Korir GK, Tries MA, et al. Patient Radiation Exposure During General Fluoroscopy Examinations.J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2014 Mar 6;15(20:262-270.

The purpose of this study was to assess the level of patient radiation dose received in general fluoroscopy examinations, compare the findings with the international diagnostic reference levels (IDRLs), and establish the initial institutional (local) LDRLs. The majority of the examinations in the study were performed with longer fluoroscopy time, patient dose values per examination type were found to be broad and the mean values above the international diagnostic reference levels. This calls for proper and improved training and radiation protection skills for the responsible personnel, especially the equipment operators.

Wallace H, Martin CJ, Sutton DG, et al. Establishment Of Scatter Factors For Use In Shielding Calculations And Risk Assessment For Computed Tomography Facilities. J Radiol Prot. 2012 Mar;32(1):39-50.

In this study the link between scatter air kerma and DLP has been investigated for CT scanners from different manufacturers. Factors recommended to derive the scatter air kerma at 1 m from the isocentre are 0.36 μGy (mGy cm)−1 forthebodyand0.14 μGy (mGy cm)−1 forheadscans. The CT scanner gantries only transmit 10% of the scatter air kerma level and this can also be taken into account when designing protection.