Chang CY, Simeone FJ, DeLorenzo MC, et al. Dose reduction for fluoroscopically guided injections: phantom simulation and patient procedures. Skeletal Radiol. 2018 Feb;47(2):223-231.

To demonstrate fluoroscopy dose reduction through both simulated injections on a phantom and patient injections. Simulation on a phantom was used to estimate effective dose, entrance dose, and organ doses for hip joint injections without and with dose minimization technique (DMT). Additionally, 1,094 joint, bursae, and tendon sheath injections performed by three operators in the same fluoroscopy suite were evaluated both before and after application of DMT. Fluoroscopy time (FT), dose, and dose area product (DAP) of injections were compared using unpaired t-tests with P > 0.05 considered statistically significant.