Wilson DJ, Scully WF, Rawlings JM. Evolving Role Of Ultrasound In Therapeutic Injections Of The Upper Extremity. Orthopedics. 2015 Nov;38(11): e1017-24.

Ultrasound provides the benefit of real-time, dynamic imaging without the radiation exposure of fluoroscopy, and ultrasound-guided injections can be performed in the office, as opposed to the operating room, which is frequently required when using fluoroscopy. Many locations for diagnostic and/or therapeutic injections in the upper extremities have improved accuracy and benefit with the use of ultrasound vs blind techniques, although a few have not been shown to have a significant difference in the literature. The educational and professional implications can be significant, but these potential benefits need to be carefully weighed against costs by each orthopedic practice.

Williamson M, Iliopoulos E, Williams R, Trompeter A. Intra-operative fluoroscopy time and radiation dose during suprapatellar tibial nailing versus infrapatellar tibial nailing. Injury. 2018 Oct;49(10):1891-1894.

Fractures of the tibial shaft are routinely managed with intramedullary nailing. An increasingly accepted technique is the suprapatellar extended leg method. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the suprapatellar tibial nailing technique offers shorter intraoperative fluoroscopy times and lower radiation doses when compared to the traditional infrapatellar technique.

Suzuki A, Matsubara K, Sasa Y. MEASUREMENT OF RADIATION DOSES TO THE EYE LENS DURING ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY USING AN C-ARM X-RAY SYSTEM. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2018 Apr 1;179(2):189-195.

The present study aimed to determine doses delivered to the eye lenses of surgeons while using the inverted-C-arm technique and the protective effect of leaded spectacles during orthopedic surgery. The kerma in air was measured at five positions on leaded glasses positioned near the eye lens and on the neck using small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeters. The lens equivalent dose was also measured at the neck using an OSL dosemeter. The maximum equivalent dose to the eye lens and the maximum kerma were 0.8 mSv/month and 0.66 mGy/month, respectively. The leaded glasses reduced the exposure by ~60%. Even if the surgeons are exposed to the maximum dose of X-ray radiation for 5 years, the equivalent doses to the eye lens will not exceed the present limit recommended by the ICRP.

Stewart FA, Akleyev AV, Hauer-Jensen M, et al. ICRP PUBLICATION 118: ICRP Statement on Tissue Reactions and Early and Late Effects of Radiation in Normal Tissues and Organs — Threshold Doses for Tissue Reactions in a Radiation Protection Context. Ann ICRP. 2012 Feb;41(1-2):1–322.

This report provides a review of early and late effects in normal tissue and organs with respect to radiation protection. The organ systems comprise the haematopoietic, immune, reproductive, circulatory, respiratory, musculoskeletal, endocrine, and nervous systems; the digestive and urinary tracts; the skin;and the eye.

Simon SL, Linet MS. Radiation-Exposed Populations: Who, Why, and How to Study. Health Phys. 2014 Feb;106(2):182-195.

This paper describes a wide range of populations exposed to radiation and the motivation and key methodological criteria that drive the rationale and priority of studying such populations. Also, discussed are alternative methods for evaluating radiation-related health risks in these populations, with a major focus on epidemiologic approaches. This paper concludes with a short summary of major highlights from radiation epidemiologic research and important unanswered questions.Introduction of Exposed Populations (Video 1:29, http://links.lww.com/HP/A22)

Shah A, Nassri M, Kay J, et al. Intraoperative radiation exposure in hip arthroscopy: a systematic review. Hip Int. 2019 Nov 25:1120700019887362.

Fluoroscopy is used in hip arthroscopy (HA) for portal placement, instrument localisation, and guidance in bony resection. The recent increase in arthroscopic hip procedures may place patients and surgeons at risk for increased radiation exposure and radiation-induced complications. The purpose of the current systematic review was to assess intraoperative radiation exposure in HA.

Sarti G, Busca F, Carpano L, et al. DOSE MEASUREMENTS TO THE LENS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND IN FLUOROSCOPY-GUIDED INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES: ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROTECTIVE EYEWEAR ANTI-X. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016 Sep;170(1-4):181-6.

The new limit of 20 mSv to the lens raises the need for further assessment of the equivalent dose to the lens for nuclear medicine and interventional radiology operators. (a) A measurement campaign was performed in nuclear medicine, (b) a routine monitoring was organised in interventional procedures and (c) the effectiveness of protective eyewear was assessed. In nuclear medicine, for photon fields, the adequacy of Hp(0.07) of dosemeter worn on the trunk is confirmed; with (90)Y, the annual values of Hp(3) measured in therapeutic session are <5 mSv. In interventional procedures, routine monitoring of the dose to the lens must be maintained where the values of Hp(0.07) dosemeter worn on the trunk are higher than one-third of the new limits. The measures carried out have shown that the attenuation factor mean of the protective glasses is equal to ∼4 (range 1.7-11.4).

Sabat S, Slonimsky E. Radiation Reduction in Low Dose Pulsed Fluoroscopy versus Standard Dose Continuous Fluoroscopy during Fluoroscopically-Guided Lumbar Punctures: A Prospective Controlled Study. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2018 Mar 9;8:9.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiation dose reduction in fluoroscopically guided lumbar punctures (FGLP) using “pulsed fluoroscopy in a low dose mode” compared with the commonly used “continuous fluoroscopy in a standard dose mode” while maintaining the technical success. Average entrance surface dose of the study group was significantly lower (3.81 mGy [range: 0.21–11.14, [±2.8 SD]]) compared with the control group (22.45 mGy [range: 1.23–73.44, [±19.41 [SD]]). The average DAP of the study group (10 mGy·cm2 [range: 1–41, [±9.8 SD]]) was also significantly lower than the control group (65 mGy·cm2 [range: 5–199, [±53 SD]]).

Roukema GR, De Jong L, Van Rijckevorsel VAJIM, et al. Radiation exposure during direct versus indirect image acquisition during fluoroscopy-controlled internal fixation of a hip fracture: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Injury. 2019;50:2263-2267.

Intra-operative image acquisition can be obtained indirectly (via verbal request to a technician) or directly (executed at the tableside, by a surgeon stepping on a foot pedal). Direct image acquisition could reduce the exposure time and thus the risk of radiation damage. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare direct surgeon-controlled fluoroscopy with indirect technician-operated fluoroscopy during internal fixation of a hip fracture.

Rogits B, Jungnickel K, Lowenthal D, et al. Prospective Evaluation Of The Radiologist’s Hand Dose In CT-Guided Interventions. Röfo. 2013 Nov;185(11):1081-1088.

Assessment of radiologist’s hand dose in CT-guided interventions and determination of influencing factors. 138 CT-guided interventions (biopsy n = 99, drainage n = 23, pain therapy n = 16) at different locations (lung n = 41, retroperitoneum n = 53, liver n = 25, spine n = 19) were included. The lesion size was 4 – 240 mm (median: 23 mm). The fluoroscopy time per intervention was 4.6 – 140.2 s (median: 24.2 s). The measured hand dose ranged from 0.001 – 3.02 mSv (median: 0.22 mSv). The median hand dose for lung puncture (n = 41) was slightly higher (median: 0.32 mSv, p = 0.01) compared to that for the liver, retroperitoneum and other.